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What are overweight and obesity?
Overweight and obesity are defined as an abnormal or excessive accumulation of body fat that can harm health.
Body mass index (BMI) is a simple measure of weight in relation to the size commonly used to estimate overweight and obesity in adults. It is the weight divided by the square of the size, expressed in kg / m2.
What are the causes of obesity and overweight?
The root cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and spent. At the global level, there were:
- An increase in the consumption of high calorie foods rich in lipids;
- An increase in the lack of physical activity due to the increasingly sedentary nature of many forms of work, changing modes of transport and increasing urbanization.
Changes in eating and exercise habits are often the result of changes in the environment and society and a lack of policies in certain sectors such as health, agriculture, transport , Town planning, environment, food processing, distribution, marketing and education.
What are the consequences of obesity and overweight?
The increase in BMI is a major risk factor for some chronic diseases such as:
- Cardiovascular diseases (mainly heart disease and stroke), which were already the leading cause of death in 2012;
- Musculoskeletal disorders, especially osteoarthritis - a degenerative joint disease, highly disabling;
- Some cancers(of the endometrium, breast, ovaries, prostate, liver, gallbladder, kidney and colon).
The risk of contracting non-contagious diseases increases with BMI.
Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk of obesity, premature death and disability in adulthood. But in addition to these risks for the future, obese children may have breathing difficulty, increased risk of fractures, high blood pressure, onset of early markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and psychological problems.